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Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Options

Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment.


Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a මානසික සුවය disorder characterised by instability in mood, behaviour, and relationships. People with BPD experience intense and frequent mood swings, and their self-image and interpersonal relationships are often unstable and erratic. This article will discuss the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder.

Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder

The symptoms of BPD can vary, but they often include emotional instability, impulsive behaviour, fear of abandonment, and an unstable self-image. People with BPD may also have difficulty managing anger, suffer from anxiety and depression, and engage in self-destructive behaviours such as substance abuse, gambling, and risky sexual behaviour.

Individuals with BPD often experience a deep fear of abandonment and may go to great lengths to avoid being alone. This fear of abandonment can manifest in various ways, including clinginess, desperation, or anger when their loved ones don’t meet their expectations. In addition, individuals with BPD often have a distorted self-image and may feel they don’t know who they are. They may change their goals, values, and opinions frequently and have difficulty maintaining stable relationships.

Persons with Borderline Personality Disorder have distorted self-image
Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder may change their goals, values, and opinions frequently and have difficulty maintaining stable relationships.

Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder

The exact causes of BPD are not well understood, but it is believed that a combination of biological and environmental factors can contribute to the development of the disorder. Some research suggests that genetic factors may be involved, as individuals with a family history of BPD are likely to develop the condition. Other potential risk factors for BPD include early trauma, neglect, and emotional or physical abuse.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosing BPD can be challenging, as the symptoms can overlap with other මානසික සුවය disorders. However, mental health professionals use specific diagnostic criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to diagnose. In addition to clinical evaluation, screening tools such as the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder and the Personality Assessment Inventory are commonly used to assess BPD symptoms.

There is no known cure for BPD, but treatment can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Antidepressants, mood stabilisers, and antipsychotics may be prescribed to help manage symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and mood swings. Psychotherapy, such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), can help individuals learn coping skills, emotional regulation, and interpersonal skills.

DBT is a specific type of psychotherapy that was developed specifically for individuals with BPD. DBT focuses on mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness. This type of therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behavior, self-harm, and hospitalizations.

Supporting someone with Borderline Personal Disorder may involve setting limits, being patient, and encouraging them to seek professional help.
Living with someone who has Borderline Personality Disorder can be challenging

Living with someone with Borderline Personality Disorder

Living with someone who has BPD can be challenging. It is important to remember that the symptoms of BPD are not a personal attack on you, and it is essential to maintain healthy boundaries and take care of yourself. Supporting someone with BPD may involve setting limits, being patient, and encouraging them to seek professional help.

Caregivers of individuals with BPD may also benefit from therapy and support groups. It is important to remember that you are not alone, and there are resources available to help you cope.

Borderline Personality Disorder can be a challenging disorder to live with, but with proper treatment and support, individuals with BPD can lead fulfilling lives. The key to managing BPD symptoms is to seek professional help and engage in therapy. Medication can also help to manage symptoms such as depression and anxiety. It is essential for caregivers and loved ones to be patient and supportive and to seek their own support when needed. 

If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD), you can start by consulting a psychiatrist or a clinical psychologist from the comfort of your home via the oDoc app




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Panic Attack vs. Anxiety Attack: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Options

Panic Attack vs. Anxiety Attack: Everything you need to know.


Anxiety and panic attacks are මානසික සුවය conditions that can cause significant distress and interfere with daily life. While the two terms are often used interchangeably, there are essential differences between the two. Understanding the difference between a panic attack and an anxiety attack is necessary to receive the appropriate treatment and manage symptoms effectively.

What are Panic Attacks?

A panic attack is a sudden and intense episode of fear or anxiety that often occurs without warning. The symptoms can be physical or psychological and may include rapid heartbeat, chest pain, sweating, shaking, and feelings of impending doom. Panic attacks can be triggered by a specific situation or can occur unexpectedly. Some common causes of panic attacks include genetics, brain chemistry, and traumatic experiences.

A panic attack is a sudden and intense episode of fear or anxiety that often occurs without warning.

What are Anxiety Attacks?

සාංකාව attacks, also known as anxiety episodes or disorders, are episodes of intense fear or worry often related to a specific situation or object. Unlike panic attacks, anxiety attacks can develop gradually. They may be accompanied by physical symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, or shortness of breath. Common causes of anxiety attacks include stress, trauma, and underlying medical conditions.

anxiety episodes or disorders, are episodes of intense fear or worry often related to a specific situation or object.

Panic Attack vs. Anxiety Attack: What's the Difference?

While panic attacks and anxiety attacks share some similarities, there are also key differences between the two. Some of the main differences include the following:

  • Panic attacks often occur suddenly and without warning. In contrast, anxiety attacks can develop gradually and may be related to a specific trigger.
  • The symptoms of panic attacks tend to be more intense. They may include physical symptoms such as chest pain or palpitations. In contrast, anxiety attacks may accompany physical symptoms but tend to focus more on psychological symptoms like excessive worry or fear.
  • Panic attacks tend to be shorter, typically lasting 5-20 minutes, while anxiety attacks may last longer.
  • Panic attacks often feel like a sudden wave of terror. In contrast, anxiety attacks tend to feel more like a persistent feeling of unease or nervousness.

It is important to note that while panic and anxiety attacks have distinct differences, they can also occur together and may indicate an underlying anxiety disorder.

Managing Panic Attacks and Anxiety Attacks

Several self-help techniques and professional treatment options are available for managing panic attacks and anxiety attacks. Some self-help techniques include deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, and mindfulness meditation. It is also essential to identify and avoid triggers and make lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, and getting enough sleep.

Professional treatment options may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is common for panic attacks and anxiety attacks. It can be effective in helping individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviours.

Several self-help techniques and professional treatment options are available for managing panic attacks and anxiety attacks.

In summary, panic attacks and anxiety attacks are severe mental health conditions that can cause significant distress and interfere with daily life. Understanding the difference between the two is essential for receiving appropriate treatment and managing symptoms effectively. It is also important to seek professional help and lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being. You can talk to one of our psychologists or therapists via the oDoc app in the most convenient way possible. Download the oDoc app here: 


Emotional Health: Why It’s as Important as Physical Health.

Panic Attack vs. Anxiety Attack: What’s the Difference? – Healthline.

Anxiety Attacks and Anxiety Disorder


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Tired of the Blues? It Might Be a Clue for Depression.

Tired of the Blues? It Might Be a Clue for Depression.


Everyone feels the blues at several points in their life. In fact, feeling sad is a normal human reaction. At the same time, it’s normal to be asking yourself if you’re just sad or depressed. Both essentially mean that you are feeling down and gloomy. Having said that, there’s a defining factor that separates general sadness from depression. 

What is Depression? How is Depression different from Sadness?

Depression is a form of chronic sadness that doesn’t last a day or two but weeks, months, years or even lifetime. With depression, you feel sad, hopeless and worthless along with other physical and mental symptoms. And if left untreated, it can creep into your life and affect your daily activities. Therefore, you’d not be able to function normally. Plus, this overwhelming feeling of darkness can drain the joy out of activities that you once liked. 

Symptoms of Depression

The signs of depression differ from one person to another. Keep in mind that the below symptoms are common human reactions. It’s important to identify with depression depending on how many of these signs you identify with and how long they last. 

Feelings of hopelessness: This will make you think that nothing will get better, and you may feel like you’re stuck in a rut. 

Loss of interest in daily activities: The hobbies, social activities or even your most beloved passion may feel like a burden. The spark isn’t there anymore.  

Changes in appetite: You will see a significant drop or gain in weight. Think of a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month. This is because you don’t feel like eating or you’re coping by eating. 

Shifts in sleep schedule: You either can’t fall asleep (insomnia) or oversleeping.

Adverse mood: You’re constantly feeling irritated, restless or even violent. All in all, everyone gets on your nerves and you always look and feel like you got up on the wrong side of the bed. 

Loss of energy: You are always tired and drained of energy. You are moving and talking slowly. Even the smallest tasks take a lot of time. 

Low self-esteem: “Stop blaming yourself” is what you hear everyone say to you because that’s all you do. You are too hard on yourself for everything and there’s a constant feeling of guilt even when you do nothing wrong. 

Clumsy behavior: You do things recklessly whether it’s driving or spending. 

Low Concentration: You have trouble focusing, making definite decisions, or even remembering things. 

Sudden aches and pains: There might be an increase in unexplained physical ailments such as headaches, back pain, aching muscles, and stomach pain.

These are the Symptoms-of-depression

Types of Depression

There are different folds of depression that can affect people at various stages of life. Being aware helps to understand any signs of depression better. 

Major Depressive Disorder: Symptoms that affect daily life and can impact you being your usual self. 

Persistent Depressive Disorder: Symptoms that can last for over two years even though symptoms aren’t intense like with Major Depressive Disorder. 

Manic Depression: The common negative depression symptoms that alternate with extreme sparks of joy or euphoria. 

Depressive Psychosis: Symptoms include hallucinations and losing complete touch with reality.  

Postpartum Depression: New mothers can develop a form of depression with mood swings, sleep troubles and anxiety. This usually begins within two to three after delivery and can last up to two weeks. Having said that, it can take as long as a year to show symptoms after childbirth. This is one of the most severe forms of depression, yet it’s often overlooked by many. 

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: This is triggered by menstrual cycles and hormonal changes.

Seasonal Depression: The symptoms worsen depending on different weather conditions. This is mostly common around the colder months. 

Atypical Depression: When there are positive events happening in life, this disappears. However, the moment something makes a wrong turn, this returns. 

Situational Depression: This is a result of something specific such as loss of a loved one, heartbreak, illnesses, etc. And usually, even if these external factors resolve, the depression you developed due to it may not.

Taking Care of Yourself – Managing Depression

One of the worst sides of depression is the feeling that you are all alone in this. Remember, you are not alone.  We are all rooting for you. At this day and age, there is a combination of oral, behavioral treatments readily available to treat and it’s all going to be okay. Meanwhile, here are ways to take care of your mind, body and soul at all times. 

  • At least 30 minutes of physical activity. 
  • Maintaining a healthy sleep schedule. 
  • Consuming healthy meals on the regular. 
  • Staying hydrated, always.
  • Performing your best without pushing too hard. 
  • Connecting with like-minded people and learning from differences. 
  • Avoiding using alcohol, nicotine, or drugs, including medications not prescribed for you.

If you doubt you have depression, no matter how busy you are, get help today. You can talk to one of our psychologists or therapists via the oDoc app in the most convenient way possible. Download the oDoc app here: 


  • Cleveland Clinic
  • CDC

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Can you Live a Normal Life with Adult ADHD?

Can you Live a Normal Life with Adult ADHD?


Life is falling apart; you can’t meet deadlines, attend social events or focus on the simplest tasks. 

In other words, you feel like you can’t function like a “normal” person

You may have adult ADHD. It directly translates to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It’s a mental health condition that may get in the way of how your brain functions and result in hyperactivity, impulsive behavior and low attention span.

In Sri Lanka, adult ADHD is largely misunderstood, undermined and completely ignored. ADHD is only viewed as something that causes hyperactivity in kids. 

Well, that’s MORE to it. 

Therefore, we are going to go cover: 

  1. How common is Adult ADHD?
  2. Adult ADHD symptoms 
  3. What causes Adult ADHD?
  4. Adult ADHD diagnosis & treatment
  5. What is Sri Lanka doing wrong?
  6. Being normal with Adult ADHD

How Common is Adult ADHD?

Every adult with ADHD had it as a child. While some kids outgrow ADHD, about 60% of them continue to have it as an adult.

According to a 2021 study, globally around 6% of adults showed ADHD symptoms in 2020. 

Many sources have confirmed that only a fraction of them have been diagnosed or treated across all cultures and countries. 

So, how do you know you have it? Let’s find out.

Adult ADHD Symptoms

There are 3 types of ADHD, some may have one, two or a combination. 


  • Forgetfulness
  • Difficulty staying focused during conversations
  • Difficulty paying attention to detail
  • Easily distracted
  • Trouble staying organized
  • Not being able focus and commit to relationships
  • Terrible with time management

Impulsivity [the ability act without thinking]

  • Always interrupt others
  • Tendency to blurt out things at the wrong time and place
  • Prone to dangerous risks
  • Mood swings


  • Walk or move around aimlessly
  • Difficulty staying in one place
  • Excessive fidgeting and talking
  • සාංකාව
  • Hyperfocus: The opposite of being distracted
  • Shifts from one task to another without completing any of it.
Symptoms of adult ADHD

Quick fact: Almost everyone has the above symptoms. These are linked to adult ADHD, only if they occur repeatedly and get in the way of your daily life.

What Causes Adult ADHD?

Actually, nobody really knows it. 

BUT, The Centers For Diseases Control and Prevention confirms that usually genetics is how attention-deficit hyperactivity is passed on. Around 3 out 4 diagnosed children have a relative with ADHD. 

Other risk factors for causing ADHD are: 

  • A concerning brain condition
  • Tobacco use, stress and alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  • Preterm birth
  • low birth weight
  • A low intake of nutrients such as magnesium, folate, zinc, or polyunsaturated acids
Causes of adult ADHD

Adult ADHD Diagnosis & Treatment

If you begin to show any adult ADHD symptoms, consult your doctor. Using the oDoc app, you could reach out to the country’s leading practitioners very easily.

The doctors may do a physical examination, run a few tests and most importantly, will check for the below. 

  • Adult ADHD symptoms
  • The time and place they started
  • The impact of these symptoms on your day-to-day
  • A family history of ADHD
  • Any other health concerns or recent life events like a divorce in the family

It’s not possible to get rid of ADHD and you don’t have to. All you need to do is manage it.

Your doctor will work with you using a combination of medications, skill training and counseling. 

People lead very happy, healthy lives with ADHD. 


What is Sri Lanka Doing Wrong?

We stumbled across a Reddit user who shared an experience of a psychiatrist dismissing adult ADHD saying, ‘everyone feels like they have ADHD’. 

If you ever experience adult ADHD symptoms and someone brushes it off, ignore them and not the symptoms. 

In Sri Lanka, overlooking ADHD is very common and that is the root of all obstacles staying in the way of leading better lives. 

Secondly, hyperactivity and other adult ADHD symptoms are seen as mental illness. It’s merely a psychiatric diagnosis/condition. University of Jayewardenepura Faculty of Medical Sciences Department of Psychiatry senior lecturer and Colombo South Teaching Hospital Kalubowila honorary consultant psychiatrist Dr. Dulshika Waas confirms this. 


Being Normal With ADHD

You can be having attention deficit hyperactivity and still be normal. It’s just a condition. It doesn’t make you any less. 

It’s one of the many obstacles people face. 

If at all, it makes you extraordinary. Think of all the high-spirited and spontaneous energy you bring to this world. 

Get the best out of this by keeping it at bay with prescribed doable treatments and counseling. Your first step is to consult your doctor for a quick diagnosis via oDoc today!


  • WebMD
  • NHS UK
  • MayoClinic

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Pedal Power: Health Benefits of Cycling

Pedal Power: Health Benefits of Cycling

Fuel shortage in Sri Lanka leads to more cycling

In a state where public transport has also been limited, and bus ticket prices have risen exponentially, the lack of transport options has made daily commuting and travelling during emergency situations increasingly difficult. As a result, walking and cycling have become almost the only choice for many Sri Lankans.

Cycling is a low-impact aerobic exercise that offers a wealth of benefits. It is a great exercise that keeps you moving and helps establish a physically and mentally healthy lifestyle.

1. Cycling can help you lose weight

Cycling is a great aerobic workout that burns calories and helps people lose weight and belly fat. To lose weight, you must burn more calories than you take in. Depending on your intensity and weight, cycling can burn between 400 and 1000 calories each hour.

Body parts that are exercised, targeted, toned, and used while cycling

  • Foot: Ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexors
  • Arms: Triceps and biceps 
  • Shoulders: Deltoids
  • Calf: Gastrocnemius and soleus
  • Buttocks or Gluts: Gluteus minimus, gluteus maximus, and gluteus medius
  • Thigh: Quadriceps and hamstrings

2. Cycling boosts mental health and brain power

Cycling can ease feelings of stress, depression, or anxiety as it may help take your focus away from the mental chatter of your day.  When cycling, concentrating on the road or your cadence might help you improve your attention span and awareness of the present moment. Here are a few ways cycling could boost your positive mental health.

  • It improves your mood. Cycling increases blood flow throughout your body, allowing endorphins and other feel-good chemicals like dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to spread quickly.
  • It promotes positive mental health. Exercise is known to have significant effects on self-esteem, sadness, anxiety, and stress. Still, cycling has been identified as one of the most beneficial exercises for the head and heart.
  • It helps you sleep better. Regular riding helps synchronise your circadian rhythm and can help to reduce levels of stress hormones that can make proper regenerative, deep sleep difficult.
  • Improves your memory. Riding a bike helps build new brain cells responsible for memory. 
  • Improves creative thinking. The regular, uniform movement of cycling relaxes the brain, stabilising both physical and mental functions.
  • Cycling promotes new thought patterns that promote feelings of calm and well-being. You can use it as a type of meditation and a great way to “zone out.”
benefits of cycling

3. Cycling improves balance, posture, and coordination

As you stabilise your body and keep your bike upright, you’ll improve your overall balance, coordination, and gait.

Maintaining balance is important because it tends to deteriorate with age and inactivity. Therefore, enhancing your balance can help lower your risk of injury and keep you off the sidelines by preventing falls and fractures.

correct posture of cycling

4. Cycling can reduce the risk of heart diseases

Regular cycling stimulates and improves your heart, lungs and circulation, reducing your risk of cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, high blood pressure and heart attacks.

Cycling also helps your cardiac muscles become more robust and lowers your resting pulse and blood fat levels.Additionally, research shows that people who cycle to work have a lung function that is two to three times better than those who commute by car.

Drawbacks of cycling and safety

Cycling has a few disadvantages to consider, and these primarily relate to cycling outside, which involves factors beyond your control.

There could always be a risk of an accident, whether in an urban or rural area. Hence, 

  • Obey the law at all times. Even if you have the right of way, exercise caution when passing through crossroads and crowded locations. Invest in a good helmet and any other necessary safety equipment.
  • Avoid wearing any loose clothing that could get caught in your bike chains.
  • Unfavourable weather might also be a barrier. So, invest in rain and cold weather gear and have a backup transportation plan for when conditions are unsafe for riding.
  • For extended daytime rides, use sunscreen on all exposed skin.
  • Take a break if you experience pain, fatigue, or muscle soreness.
  • If you have any cycling-related injuries, staying off the bike is best until you fully recover.
tips for cycling safely

The bottom line

Given the current situation in Sri Lanka, cycling to your destination may seem like the only option. However, just play it safe and use caution when necessary, especially on busy roads or during unfavourable weather.

If you have any injuries or need clarification regarding conditions that cycling may affect, speak to a general practitioner or a physician via the oDoc app.


  1. 15 benefits of cycling: why cycling is great for fitness, legs and mind, Cycling Weekly (2022).
  2. 12 Benefits of Cycling, Plus Safety Tips, Healthline (2021).
  3. Cycling – health benefits, Better Health (2021).

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