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Understanding Kidney Stones: Its Symptoms, Causes and Treatment.

Understanding Kidney Stones: Its Symptoms, Causes and Treatment.


Let’s recap what we hear about kidney stones. We often hear people say it’s an extremely painful peeing experience that happens when you don’t drink water. Well that isn’t entirely wrong but there’s so much to it. 

One in every 10 people get affected by this and in Sri Lanka, kidney stones are much more common due to the weather over here. In a minute, you’d know why as you learn the causes of kidney stones. 

Let’s start with the basics. 

What are Kidney Stones?

On a normal day, your kidneys remove waste from your blood by creating urine. 

When there is a lot of waste in your blood and your body is unable to produce enough urine, crystals (made of hard deposits of minerals, salts and other waste) begin to form in your kidneys. 

Kidney stones (also known as urinary stones) can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. And the more they are left untreated, they can get bigger and even cause the failure of your kidneys. Oops. 

kidney stones formation

Dr Nishantha Liyanapathirana, Consultant Urological Surgeon, has mentioned that most of the urinary stones are made of minerals or calcium along with a smaller percentage of toxic materials like uric acid and cysteine. 

On that note, let’s explore what it’s like to have these stones in our urinary tract.

Kidney Stones Symptoms

Usually, if it’s a small stone, you won’t feel anything as it passes with your urine. This is given you drink enough water for it to pass and not grow bigger.

If it’s a relatively big one, you’re going to experience the below signs of discomfort: 

  • Severe pain on either side of your back
  • A constant stomach pain that won’t go away
  • Blood in urine
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fever and chills
  • Foul-smelling, unclear urine
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Severe pain or burning sensation while passing urine. This happens when the stone is big enough to block the flow of urine and result in irritating that area. 


symptoms of kidney stones

If you’re having any of the above kidney stones symptoms, seek immediate medical attention. 

To ease the discomfort in the process of getting yourself treated, opt for an online medical consultation via oDoc. Our network of highly professional medical doctors would be able to prescribe any treatment or screening with just a phone call. 

Ever wondered what may cause this uncomfortable situation? Having the answers to this, could help you avoid and stay clear of kidney stones in the future. 

Kidney Stone Causes

  • If you have a family history of kidney stones, a combination of unhealthy lifestyle habits could push you towards kidney stones. 
  • Not drinking enough water to pass out the bodily waste. 
  • அதீத உடல் பருமன் 
  • Having health problems related to the digestive system.
  • Any weight loss surgery 
  • Eating too much protein, sodium, fructose and salt. 
  • Having polycystic kidney condition 
  • Having a health problem that causes your urine to contain high levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid or calcium. These constituents define the different types of kidney stones. 


Types of Kidney Stones
  • Calcium oxalate: This one is common.  And this is created when calcium combines with oxalate in the urine. Inadequate calcium and fluid intake, and a few other conditions, are the cause of this.
  • Uric acid:  Foods such as organ meats and shellfish have high concentrations of a natural chemical compound known as purines. High level of purine leads to a higher production of monosodium urate, which, under the specific conditions, may form kidney stones.
  • Struvite: They are less common and are appear due to infections in the upper urinary tract.
  • Cystine: These stones are rare and tend to run in families. They reoccur and cannot be cured but can be managed well with a healthy lifestyle. 

So, what’s the next step?


Kidney Stone Diagnosis

Let’s say you have your first consultation call with one of our doctors via the oDoc app, depending on your medical history and symptoms, our doctors may direct you to a few tests like X Rays, blood and urine tests. 

Kidney Stone Treatment:

If you ever get diagnosed, your doctor will prescribe a combination of lifestyle changes and medications to alleviate the pain and help pass the kidney stone out of your body. In an event when the kidney stone is too big, surgeries might be suggested, they are usually minimally invasive. Remember, any surgery is usually a last resort to treat kidney stones.

Caution: People make the mistake of taking ibuprofen without asking the healthcare provider. This drug can boost the risk of kidney failure, especially when you have a history of kidney diseases and related illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity.

Final Takeaway

Cliché but drink lots of water. And keep tabs on intake of sodium, animal protein, carbs and oxalate-rich foods. 

Most importantly, don’t self-diagnose. Kidney stones are usually treatable very easily, mainly when you get it checked earlier as possible. 

Your doctor is only a call away! Download oDoc app here:


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How to Go Vegan: A Beginner’s Guide to Veganism

How to Go Vegan: A Beginner’s Guide to Veganism


You’ve been wanting to become a vegan, but you don’t know where to start. Fret not, we got you!

Veganism is a way of living in which you avoid, as much as possible, all forms of animal exploitation and cruelty. Therefore, veganism covers beyond your diet and includes any form of consumption relating to the use of animals. It’s a way of life. 

Did you know? The number of people following a vegan diet has increased by 350% over the last decade. 

It might feel refreshing to try something new like a vegan diet but it’s essential to know the ethics surrounding veganism. In other words, it’s best to know why it’s practiced. 

Why do people go vegan?

1.True vegans believe that all creatures have a right to life and freedom. Simply because, they believe all conscious beings don’t want to endure any suffering, both psychological and physical.

Therefore, vegan consumption doesn’t only extend to meat but also to the animals’ milk, eggs, honey, silk, etc. 

2. Some opt for vegan food for its health benefits. Generally, diets high in meat are linked to various diseases like cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, etc. Whereas plant-based meals are proven to be helpful to prevent these chronic diseases. Not just that, vegan food also comes with benefits like improved digestion, prevention of Alzheimer, hormone-related conditions and obesity. 

Having said that, a vegan diet can also reduce the chance of consuming a range of key nutrients like vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, iron, iodine, etc. This is why it’s key to talk to a nutritionist to help you plan better. This way, you have a healthier vegan lifestyle, with all the benefits included. 

We have listed some of the highly valued nutritionists in the country on ODoc. To connect with them at your most convenient times, download the ODoc app here. 

Meanwhile, this is our guide to improving your vegan diet in the meantime. 

Reasons to consider veganism

Simple Tips to Improve your Vegan Diet

Perfect diet ideas for veganism

Finding vegan food can feel like an extreme sport at times. Especially, due to the price hikes and less availability of vegan ingredients. 

In the beginning, you may feel your vegan diet is restrictive. It’s okay, all you need is a perspective shift. Instead of thinking about what you are not eating, always ask yourself: What else can I eat? 

Here are some of our recommendations: 

  • Vegetables are your best friend. Generally, veggies are packed with vitamins (A, K and C), minerals like potassium. The key is to consume high protein vegetables, they help you reach your calorie count easily and are usually high in fiber. A win-win in all sides. Some examples are green peas, spinach, artichokes, sweet corn, avocado, mushrooms, kale, potatoes, the list goes on!
  • Make sure your meals include ALL the important nutrition like the vegan protein, carbs, fats, vitamins, minerals and water (the forgotten nutrient). You should eat produce from all colours of the rainbow. For instance, red tomatoes help against prostate cancer, orange fruits help protect your immune system and greens like broccoli help to clear toxins from the body.
  • Pick whole grains. Replace your refined grains like white bread for whole grains, such as brown rice and quinoa. This brings more iron and B vitamins to your diet. Not just that, whole grains come with a better fiber content, this means it’s more satisfying too.
  • Find new plant-based vegan proteins. It’s advisable for women to have a daily consumption of 46g of protein and for men, it’s 56g. Since a vegan diet eliminates the common sources of protein that include red meat, eggs and dairy, you have some exploring to do. In a way, it’s amazing because finding new plant-based protein is generally a healthier choice. You could start with tofu, lentils, chickpeas, beans, almonds, sunflower seeds and so much more!
  • Beware of processed vegan foods. These are usually made with saturated-fat-laden palm oil and coconut oil. Instead, pick whole, nutritious foods with vegan ingredients such as carrots and hummus, nuts and dried fruit, whole-grain tortilla chips with guacamole.
  • Don’t miss out on vegan omega-3 fatty acids. They are essential for many bodily functions including, heart health and brain development. However, omega-3 fatty acids are found in fatty fish like tuna and salmon. Having said that, there are vegan sources such as walnut, soymilk, canola oil, etc.
  • Prioritise vitamin B1, iron and vitamin D: These are another set of very important contents for healthy living, and these are usually found in animal-based produce. But again, there are plenty of healthier, vegan alternatives like legumes, energy bars, mushrooms. 

With the help of a nutritionist, a better vegan balanced diet and extensive meal options are highly accessible. Speak to a nutritionist for more details from the safety and comfort of your home via oDoc today!


  • Healthline
  • Vegan Society 
  • WebMD

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Chronic Inflammation kills. Don’t ignore the signs

Chronic Inflammation kills. Don’t ignore the signs


A lot of people ignore chronic Inflammation because the term sounds a bit heavy. It’s a simple yet highly important concept. 

Chronic inflammation is the reason why some suffer with back pain, muscle problems, diabetes, asthma, heart diseases and even Alzheimer.

Globally, 3 of 5 people die due to chronic inflammatory related diseases like stroke, chronic respiratory diseases, heart disorders, cancer, obesity, and diabetes.

Therefore, it’s essential to know about chronic Inflammation. Where do we start? Let’s quickly tell you what inflammation is.

Explaining Inflammation

It’s a beautiful day until an outside threat like virus or bacteria tries to enter your body. OR let’s say, you tripped and fell. In either case, your body will activate its immune system. Your immune system will then send out the first responders: inflammatory cells and cytokines (substances that stimulate more inflammatory cells).

These cells create an inflammatory response by trapping the bacteria and other offending agents or start healing the injured tissue. This obviously helps your body. But as it is healing, you will be left with pain, swelling, bruising or redness. This is called acute inflammation. In other words, acute inflammation is just your body reacting to the fight between an outside threat and your inflammatory cells.

When you’re healthy, the effects of inflammation, like irritation and pain, gets better quickly. 

But when your immune system keeps fighting when there is no threat, then inflammation becomes a problem. We call THIS, chronic Inflammation.

So, when do you know you have chronic Inflammation?

Symptoms of Chronic Inflammation

Feeling dizzy or off-balance: Your overly functioning immune system can attack your nerve coatings. This can make it hard for nerve signals to get through. 

நீரிழிவு: Insulin controls the blood sugar level and when chronic inflammation affects it, the insulin won’t function well. This can lead to high blood sugar levels, therefore, diabetes. 

Weak muscles: Chronic inflammation can break down muscle fiber and make it weak. It usually happens around the torso, hips and shoulders.

Lower back pain: Chronic inflammation usually affects the spine and, in some cases, the hips, neck, knees or chest. When this happens, you may feel stiffness in the lower back, mainly in the mornings. 

You’re always tired: This is a usual sign of inflammatory diseases like fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis. 

Hardening of the Arteries: If you’re gaining body fat or smoking a lot, your body will respond with chronic inflammation. This can cause fatty build up on the inside walls of your arteries. This is known as arteriosclerosis, it’s the main cause of heart attack and stroke.

Remember: Some signs of chronic inflammation such as  heart or brain problems are silent. Symptoms  like fatigue or back pain can be easily confused with other complications

Therefore, it’s key to get in touch with your doctor when things don’t seem to be going the right way, of course, with your health. Diagnosis is the way to go. 

symptoms of chronic inflammation

Diagnosis of Chronic Inflammation

The first step is a consultation with a general practitioner, this can be done from the comfort of your couch on ANY convenient day. The oDoc app makes diagnosis easy with a list of highly credible health professionals from Sri Lanka

After your consultation, expect blood tests for diagnosis. 

On that note, if you are diagnosed with any inflammatory condition, the doctor may prescribe a combination of medications, surgeries, supplements and lifestyle changes.

This depends on what kind of chronic inflammation illness you are diagnosed with. However, one usual common factor is lifestyle changes that can apply to anyone wanting to keep chronic inflammation at a distance. 

Healthy Lifestyle Changes

lifestyle changes for chronic inlammation
  • Quit smoking.
  • Limit alcohol intake.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Manage stress
  • Get regular physical activity.
  • Improve your diet with anti-inflammatory ingredients like olive oil, nuts, fatty fish, tomatoes and fruits like cherries, berries and oranges.

Take your regular check up seriously. Speak to a GP from the safety and comfort of your home via oDoc today!


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You Don’t Want Diabetes, This is Why.

You Don’t Want Diabetes, This is Why.


Ever wondered why people refer to diabetes as ‘sugar’? Some even assume that diabetes is caused by sugar. There’s a connection for sure, but diabetes is a much more complex health condition. 

What’s more alarming is how common diabetes is.  

It doubles the risk of death. And every 20 seconds one person loses their leg somewhere in the world due to diabetes. 

Globally, more than 530 million people are affected by it, and this is expected to reach a half billion by the end of this decade. Recently, the World Bank reported that in Sri Lanka, 11.3% of the adult population (between the ages of 20 and 79) have diabetes. That’s quite a significant number and shouldn’t be taken lightly.

Therefore, you should know a few very important things about diabetes.

Diabetes in Simple Terms

Your body transforms a lot of the food you eat into sugar (glucose) and releases it into your bloodstream. When your blood sugar increases, it signals the pancreas to create insulin. Insulin is used to convert blood sugar into energy.

With diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it that well. This leads to having too much blood sugar in your bloodstream. When this builds up, this can lead to many serious health problems like heart disease, vision loss and kidney failure. 

The poor health condition due to the high blood sugar level is called Diabetes.

The Types of Diabetes and its Causes

You might be curious what causes this, let’s cover that one type at a time. 

Type 1 Diabetes

This results from the failure of pancreas to create enough insulin. Only around 5-10% of those who have diabetes are affected by this type. 

Cause: It’s still not clearly known. Even though some believe it to be the body attacking itself.

Type 2 Diabetes

This occurs when your body doesn’t use insulin well and struggles to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Around 90-95% of the people have type 2 diabetes. 

Cause: Obesity, poor physical activity and genetics have a part to play. 

Did you know? A survey reported that around 30% of the Sri Lankan population didn’t engage in recommended moderate-intensity physical activities. And Females were considered more inactive than males. 

Gestational Diabetes

This happens in pregnancy and often can be harmful for the baby. 

Cause: Mostly unknown but it’s believed that the pregnancy hormones get in the way of the mother’s insulin creation. 

There’s no cure for diabetes of any form. Having said that, with early diagnosis and proper care, all of the above conditions can be managed very well.

Signs of Diabetes

Start by being aware of the symptoms of diabetes. 

  • Weight gain or loss while always feeling hungry 
  • Always thirsty
  • Wanting to urinate all the time
  • Feeling too tired around the clock
  • Blurry vision
  • Frequent genital or skin infections 
  • Cuts and bruises take forever to heal
  • Tingling sensation or numbness in the hands or feet
  • Trouble of getting or maintaining an erection

With diabetes type 2, a majority show no symptoms until it’s too late. This is why regular check-ups are key!

signs of diabetes

Diabetes Diagnosis in Sri Lanka

If you feel the above symptoms are too familiar, head to your nearest hospital or if you’re unsure, you can always call a doctor via oDoc. 

Here are a few tests that your doctor may carry out to diagnose. 

  1. Fasting Blood Sugar: 

You will have to fast for 8 hours without eating or drinking except water.

  1. Random Blood Sugar:
  2. HbA1C:

You don’t have to fast for these tests and it can be carried at any time of the day. 

  1. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test:

You will fast for 8 hours and after that you’ll be given a glucose drink. Two hours later, your blood sample will be taken.

Treating and Preventing Diabetes

If you’re diagnosed with diabetes, it’s not the end of the world. It’s a new beginning to refresh your lifestyle. 


Your doctor will prescribe oral medications and insulin doses depending on the type of diabetes and the severity of it. 

Other than that, lifestyle changes and regular monitoring makes up a great proportion of it. Interestingly, these are also the two things that are important to prevent diabetes.


  1. Eat healthy. Choose foods that are rich in nutrients and fiber instead of calories and fat. Get the help of a nutritionist if needed; there are plenty of recognised professionals on ODoc. 
  2. Get moving. Allocate a minimum of 30 minutes daily to improve your physical activity. 
  3. Take regular tests. ODoc app connects you with the country’s leading practitioners in seconds. This way, you can find out if you’re eligible for any of the tests in the most convenient way!
preventing diabetes

You don’t always show symptoms so, every 3 years, approach your doctor to learn if you need any. 

However, if you relate to any of the below, you may need to get checked every 12 months.

  • Overweight 
  •  Sedentary lifestyle
  • அதிக இரெத்த அழுத்தம்
  • High cholesterol and lipids
  • Slightly high blood sugar
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Family history of diabetes
  • Dark, thick and velvety skin over neck and armpits. 

Although there’s no complete cure, diabetes is a completely manageable condition. If you have more questions, speak to an endocrinologist from the safety and comfort of your home via oDoc today!


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Can you Live a Normal Life with Adult ADHD?

Can you Live a Normal Life with Adult ADHD?


Life is falling apart; you can’t meet deadlines, attend social events or focus on the simplest tasks. 

In other words, you feel like you can’t function like a “normal” person

You may have adult ADHD. It directly translates to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It’s a mental health condition that may get in the way of how your brain functions and result in hyperactivity, impulsive behavior and low attention span.

In Sri Lanka, adult ADHD is largely misunderstood, undermined and completely ignored. ADHD is only viewed as something that causes hyperactivity in kids. 

Well, that’s MORE to it. 

Therefore, we are going to go cover: 

  1. How common is Adult ADHD?
  2. Adult ADHD symptoms 
  3. What causes Adult ADHD?
  4. Adult ADHD diagnosis & treatment
  5. What is Sri Lanka doing wrong?
  6. Being normal with Adult ADHD

How Common is Adult ADHD?

Every adult with ADHD had it as a child. While some kids outgrow ADHD, about 60% of them continue to have it as an adult.

According to a 2021 study, globally around 6% of adults showed ADHD symptoms in 2020. 

Many sources have confirmed that only a fraction of them have been diagnosed or treated across all cultures and countries. 

So, how do you know you have it? Let’s find out.

Adult ADHD Symptoms

There are 3 types of ADHD, some may have one, two or a combination. 


  • Forgetfulness
  • Difficulty staying focused during conversations
  • Difficulty paying attention to detail
  • Easily distracted
  • Trouble staying organized
  • Not being able focus and commit to relationships
  • Terrible with time management

Impulsivity [the ability act without thinking]

  • Always interrupt others
  • Tendency to blurt out things at the wrong time and place
  • Prone to dangerous risks
  • Mood swings


  • Walk or move around aimlessly
  • Difficulty staying in one place
  • Excessive fidgeting and talking
  • பதற்றம்
  • Hyperfocus: The opposite of being distracted
  • Shifts from one task to another without completing any of it.
Symptoms of adult ADHD

Quick fact: Almost everyone has the above symptoms. These are linked to adult ADHD, only if they occur repeatedly and get in the way of your daily life.

What Causes Adult ADHD?

Actually, nobody really knows it. 

BUT, The Centers For Diseases Control and Prevention confirms that usually genetics is how attention-deficit hyperactivity is passed on. Around 3 out 4 diagnosed children have a relative with ADHD. 

Other risk factors for causing ADHD are: 

  • A concerning brain condition
  • Tobacco use, stress and alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  • Preterm birth
  • low birth weight
  • A low intake of nutrients such as magnesium, folate, zinc, or polyunsaturated acids
Causes of adult ADHD

Adult ADHD Diagnosis & Treatment

If you begin to show any adult ADHD symptoms, consult your doctor. Using the oDoc app, you could reach out to the country’s leading practitioners very easily.

The doctors may do a physical examination, run a few tests and most importantly, will check for the below. 

  • Adult ADHD symptoms
  • The time and place they started
  • The impact of these symptoms on your day-to-day
  • A family history of ADHD
  • Any other health concerns or recent life events like a divorce in the family

It’s not possible to get rid of ADHD and you don’t have to. All you need to do is manage it.

Your doctor will work with you using a combination of medications, skill training and counseling. 

People lead very happy, healthy lives with ADHD. 


What is Sri Lanka Doing Wrong?

We stumbled across a Reddit user who shared an experience of a psychiatrist dismissing adult ADHD saying, ‘everyone feels like they have ADHD’. 

If you ever experience adult ADHD symptoms and someone brushes it off, ignore them and not the symptoms. 

In Sri Lanka, overlooking ADHD is very common and that is the root of all obstacles staying in the way of leading better lives. 

Secondly, hyperactivity and other adult ADHD symptoms are seen as mental illness. It’s merely a psychiatric diagnosis/condition. University of Jayewardenepura Faculty of Medical Sciences Department of Psychiatry senior lecturer and Colombo South Teaching Hospital Kalubowila honorary consultant psychiatrist Dr. Dulshika Waas confirms this. 


Being Normal With ADHD

You can be having attention deficit hyperactivity and still be normal. It’s just a condition. It doesn’t make you any less. 

It’s one of the many obstacles people face. 

If at all, it makes you extraordinary. Think of all the high-spirited and spontaneous energy you bring to this world. 

Get the best out of this by keeping it at bay with prescribed doable treatments and counseling. Your first step is to consult your doctor for a quick diagnosis via oDoc today!


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